When Women’s Voices are Truly Heard: Chris Karpowitz and “The Silent Sex”

“Culture does not make people. People make culture. If it is true that the full humanity of women is not our culture, then we can and must make it our culture,” wrote Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie in her book We Should All Be Feminists. BYU Political Science professor Dr. Chris Karpowitz has researched what that “full humanity” looks like currently, in the context of public meetings and politics. In the 2014 book The Silent Sex: Gender, Deliberation, & Institutions, authored by him and Princeton University professor Dr. Tali Mendelberg, they discuss the reasoning behind, methods, results, and implications of a study they conducted on the subject of gender equality in politics. They found, among other things, that only in certain situations are women’s voices truly heard.

Gender Equality – The Study

silent sex
Photo courtesy of Goodreads

That study, The Deliberative Justice Experiment, included both male and female participants who were divided into groups and tasked with discussing and making decisions regarding the redistribution of money. They were told that they would be paid based on their group’s decision; the decision had to be by majority or unanimous, depending on which group they were placed in.

This experiment allowed Doctors Mendelberg and Karpowitz to ask important questions, such as:

  • How much do women and men speak?
  • Do men use interruptions to establish their status in the group?
  • Do women use them to create a warmer tone of interaction in the group?
  • Do women express their preferences during discussion?
  • How does what happens in the discussion affect the decision the groups ultimately makes?

The researchers found that those in unanimous decision groups were more inclusive and more vocal in expressing their preferences, and discussed the issue longer. If men were in the numerical minority in such a group, though, they tended to increase their participation and interrupt more. According to Karpowitz, this meant that “unanimous rule is good for women when [they] are in the [numerical] minority…but it is bad for women when they are the majority, …as men—the numerical minority—increase their participation.”

Majority rule groups also demonstrated behaviors that had both benefits and drawbacks for women. “Majority rule signals that the more numerous groups…are entitled to exercise power,” said the authors. When women are in the majority, they participate more and “can benefit from this signal to exercise power.” So, in order to achieve their goals, women must have a large majority. The opposite is true for men: they can get away with having a small majority. Furthermore, when women are in the majority, the men in the group are more resistant to their stances. “Unanimous rule helps women when they are few, while majority rule helps women when they are many.”

Implications for Change

The authors posited that simply holding meetings and increasing the proportion of female municipal leaders were ineffective ways to boost female involvement. Indeed, the question of whether or not more females should get involved in politics because of their gender has tended to be a topic about which people have strong opinions. Margaret Dayton, a BYU alumni who is the longest-serving woman in the Utah state legislature, said in last year’s issue of Connections: “Your gender does not qualify you to serve. Your principles, your willingness to work, your experience that brings you there, those are the kinds of things that qualify people, not gender.” And Karpowitz conducted a study with fellow political science professor Jessica Preece that found that “quotas, which face practical and ideological barriers in the United States, are not the…way to increase women’s representation.”

Rather, Karpowitz and Mendelberg suggest that increasing the number of women in meetings and municipalities where they might be underrepresented or in the minority, and implementing unanimous rule—or measures that lead to total inclusion—might rectify the problem of “the silent sex.” Although unanimity is not without its problems, the process aids women when they are in the minority.


The authors cite political theorist Alexis de Tocqueville‘s views on class differences: “The humblest individual who is called upon to co-operate in the government of society acquires a certain degree of self-respect; and as he possesses authority, he can command the services of minds much more enlightened than his own.” The same can be said for gender equality. Only by making a concerted effort can we be more inclusive of women in politics and other public forums.


Student Rachel Stone: Passionate About Political Science

Confucius once said, “The truly wise person goes beyond knowledge.” Nobody exemplifies this more than Political Science student Rachel Stone. An active member of the university and the community, she has used her skills and knowledge to better everyone around her. Recently, we had the opportunity to talk with her:

Q: What’s your major? Why did you choose it? Was there a particular experience that led you to it?

A: I study Political Science with a minor in Computer Science, with the intention of using technology to change the way that governments interact with their citizens. rachel-stoneI became converted to the future of 21st century government after conducting research for a venture capitalist after my first year at BYU.

Q: What are you involved in (i.e. extracurricular activities)?

A: I co-founded and served as President of Women in Politics, a branch of BYU’s Political Affairs Society. I was raised by feminists to become a feminist, and am passionate about empowering women in fields of leadership and STEM. After two years of heavy involvement with Provo City, I also helped launch the nonpartisan Provo Student Project. It is currently registering students to vote and orienting students to Provo when they first move in.

Q: Any tips for getting involved?

A: First, know your strengths and offer them.

Second, someone else on campus feels the way that you do too.

Third, persistently ask and ye shall receive. Boldly, continuously asking for the jobs, internships, scholarships or extracurricular roles that you want will open doors for you.

Q: What do you like to do outside of school?

A: Shop the Provo Farmer’s Market every Saturday morning during the fall, drink hot chocolate on Provo Center Street during the winter, attempt to out-cycle Mayor Curtis during Provo Bike Week during the spring, and run all of the Provo 5K’s during the summer.

Q: Random fact or story about yourself?

A: Right now, I am writing you from the BYU Jerusalem Center. I came to Jerusalem to realize more of my identity as an Asian Ashkenazi Jew (from which my dad converted to Mormonism). From here, I am voting by email, believe it or not! I encourage you to invest energy to vote this year!

For more Student Spotlights, be sure to check out Sarah Curry!